By the end of grade twelve, students will:
B.12.1 Create or produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
- Write a coherent argument that takes a position, accurately summarizes an opposing position, refutes that position, and cites persuasive evidence
- Compose and publish analytic and reflective writing that conveys knowledge, experience, insights, and opinions to an intended audience
- Use rhetorical structures that divide complex thoughts into simpler ones, logical transitions from one thought to another, and language appropriate to the intended audience
- Write creative fiction that includes an authentic setting, discernible tone, coherent plot, distinct characters, effective detail, believable dialogue, and reasonable resolution of conflict
- Write summaries of complex information (such as information in a lengthy text or a sequence of events), expand or reduce the summaries by adding or deleting detail, and integrate appropriately summarized information into reviews, reports, or essays, with correct citations
- Write autobiographical and biographical narratives in a mature style characterized by suitable vocabulary, descriptive detail, effective syntax, an appropriate voice, a variety of sentence structures, clear coordination and subordination of ideas, and rhetorical devices that help establish tone and reinforce meaning
- Prepare and publish technical writing such as memos, applications, letters, reports and resumes for various audiences, attending to details of layout and format as appropriate to purpose
- Write in a variety of situations (impromptu, over time, in collaboration or alone) and adapt strategies, such as revision, technology, and the use of reference materials, to the situation
- Use a variety of writing technologies, including pen and paper as well as computers
- Write for a variety of readers, including peers, teachers, and other adults, adapting content, style, and structure to audience and situation
B.12.2 Plan, revise, edit, and publish clear and effective writing.
- Write essays demonstrating the capacity to communicate knowledge, opinions, and insights to an intended audience through a clear thesis and effective organization of supporting ideas
- Develop a composition through a series of drafts, using a revision strategy based on purpose and audience, personal style, self-awareness of strengths and weaknesses as a writer, and feedback from peers and teachers
- Given a writing assignment to be completed in a limited amount of time, produce a well developed, well organized, clearly written response in effective language and a voice appropriate for audience and purpose
B.12.3 Understand the function of various forms, structures, and punctuation marks of standard American English and use them appropriately in oral and written communications.
- Understand the form and function of words, phrases, and clauses, including inter-related clauses in complex sentences, and use them effectively
- Use correct tenses, including conditionals, to indicate the relative order and relationship of events,
- Employ principles of agreement, including subject-verb, pronoun-noun, and preposition-pronoun
- Punctuate compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences correctly, including appropriate use of dialogue, citations, colons, hyphens, dashes, ellipses, and italics
- Employ the conventions of capitalization
- Spell frequently used words correctly and use effective strategies for spelling unfamiliar words
- Recognize common errors in the use of language and know how (and when) to correct them