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Additional Challenges - curriculum and instruction intended to meet the needs of students exceeding benchmarks.

Aggregate – the performance/achievement of the total population of learners participating in an assessment.

Bias – prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another.

College and Career Readiness – the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction mission to ensure every child graduates from high school academically prepared and socially and emotionally competent for further education and the workplace. This includes proficiency in 1) academic content (knowledge), 2) application of knowledge through skills such as critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity (skills) and 3) behaviors such as perseverance, responsibility, adaptability and leadership (habits).

Cultural Brokers – individuals who bridge, link, and mediate between groups or persons of different cultural backgrounds for the purpose of reducing conflict or producing change.

Cultural Competence – awareness of one’s own cultural identity and views about difference, and the ability to learn and build on the varying cultural and community norms of learners and their families.

Culturally Responsive Practices – an approach to teaching that recognizes the value of learners’ cultural beliefs and practices and draws upon them to inform instruction, enhance learner self-advocacy and bridge learners’ home and school experiences.

Disaggregate – data calculated and reported separately for specific sub-groups or populations (e.g., learners’ economic conditions, race, gender, culture, native language, developmental differences, and identified disabilities).

Discrimination – the unjust or prejudicial treatment of individuals or groups of people based on characteristics such as race, age, gender, sexual orientation, and ability.

Disproportionality – the over- or under-representation of a given population group, often defined by racial and ethnic backgrounds, but also defined by socioeconomic status, national origin, English proficiency, gender, and sexual orientation, in a specific population category. For example, a child's race and ethnicity significantly influence the child's probability of being misidentified, misclassified, and inappropriately placed in special education programs.

District Capacity Assessment – an action assessment designed to help educational district leaders and staff better align resources with intended outcomes and develop action plans to support the use of effective innovations available through the National Implementation Research Network (NIRN).

Equitable Multi-Level System of Supports – systematically providing differing levels of intensity of supports (interventions/additional challenges, collaborative structures, monitoring of learner progress) based upon learner responsiveness to instruction and intervention.

Equity – Educational equity means that every student has access to the resources and educational rigor they need at the right moment in their education, across race, gender, ethnicity, language, ability, sexual orientation, family background, and/or family income.

Growth Mindset – the belief that intelligence is fluid and develops over time. In contrast, a fixed mindset is the belief that intelligence is an inborn trait that does not change.

Identity – all aspects that make a person who they are including but not limited to: race, ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, gender identity, socioeconomic status, ability status, language, religion, and marital status. Aspects of culture combine to provide a sense of identity, a history of how a person or group experience interactions with society.

Implementation Drivers – key components of capacity and infrastructure influencing a program’s success. The core components needed to initiate and support classroom, building, and district level change.

Instructional Framework – a common language and vision for quality teaching shared by everyone in a school district. An instructional framework provides a district-wide picture with levels of specificity to what is taught in all grades and in all subject areas, including the core content, grade level benchmarks, instructional strategies, and assessments. The framework provides curricular and instructional transitions between grades and disciplines within and among district schools.

Leadership Drivers – one component of implementation drivers in which leaders understand the difference between technical and adaptive challenges and implement effective strategies associated with each.

Marginalization – the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of a school or district, to put or keep some learners and families in a powerless or unimportant position within a classroom, school or district.

Prejudice – an opinion or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge is attained.

Progress Monitoring - process used to assess students’ academic and behavioral performance, to measure student responsiveness to interventions/challenges, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions/challenges.

Progress monitoring (for gathering data on intensive interventions for insufficient progress in academics) means a scientifically-based practice to assess pupil response to interventions. Source: Wisconsin Administrative Code sec. PI 11.02(10)

Root Cause – the deepest underlying cause, or causes, of the outcomes being achieved within any process.

Schoolwide Implementation Review (SIR) – an academic self-assessment focusing on either mathematics or reading used by schools to evaluate system implementation and fidelity at the universal, selected and intensive levels available through the Wisconsin RtI Center/PBIS Network.

Stereotype – a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person.

Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) – a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports assessment to measure fidelity within each tier of PBIS and all tiers collectively available through

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) – a research-based set of principles (engagement, access, assessment) to guide the design of learning environments accessible and effective for every learner.

Leading for Equity: Opportunities for State Education Chiefs. (n.d.). Retrieved May 10, 2017, from