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Leading Forward: Resources & Impact

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Multiple sources are reviewed and published to determine and analyze needs and impact at each stage in an educator's career. Use these links to access resources, research, and reports for each stage.


WI Educator Preparation Program and Workforce Report

The most recent report published by DPI covers data from the 2020-22 school years including data and analysis on enrollment and completion of educator preparation programs, passage rates on licensure exams, responses to a statewide hiring survey, shortage areas, demographics, salary and fringe, retention, and retirement.

Review details: Educator Preparation Program and Workforce Analysis Report 
(April 2024)

Other key resource:

Teacher Shortage Areas (United States Department of Education)

arrow icon  ATTRACT the Education Workforce

American Institutes for Research. 2021. “Grow Your Own: A Systemic Approach to Securing an Effective Educator Talent Pool.”

[Modules focus on an introduction to grow your own programs, using data to determine when and why to grow your own, developing a grow your own strategic plan, essential components of a grow your own program]. 

Minnesota Department of Education. July 2019. “Best Practices for High School Grow Your Own Teacher Programs.” 

REL Northwest.  n.d.  “Strategies for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Grow-Your-Own Teacher Programs for Educators.” 

Bianca, Margarita, Conra D. Gist, and Marvin Lynn. 2019. “Examining Grow Your Own Programs Across the Teacher Development Continuum: Mining Research on Teachers of Color and Nontraditional Educator Pipelines.” Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 70(1): 13–25.

Castro, Antonio J., and Michelle Bauml. “Why Now? Factors Associated with Choosing Teaching as a Second Career and Their Implications for Teacher Education Programs.” Teacher Education Quarterly 36, no. 3 (2009): 113–26.

arrow icon  PREPARE the Education Workforce

Annual State Educator Preparation Program (EPP) Reports

In compliance with Act 166, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) produces an annual report of the state’s educator preparation programs (EPP). The report includes information on program completers and first-time passage rates on state-required performance assessments.

Check out Leading Forward: Prepare for information regarding Financial Assistance resources.


Ronfeldt, M. (2021). Links among teacher preparation, retention, and teaching effectiveness. National Academy of Education Committee on Evaluating and Improving Teacher Preparation Programs. National Academy of Education.

Podolsky, A., Kini, T. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2019), "Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of US research", Journal of Professional Capital and Community, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 286-308.

Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Vasquez Heilig, J. (2005). Does Teacher Preparation Matter? Evidence about Teacher Certification. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13, 42.

Research has also shown that teachers have a significant influence on their students, even for outcomes measured years later (Backes, Cowen, Goldhaber and Theobald 2022; Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff 2014). Research has also shown that having a teacher of the same race is important for students of color (Gershenson, Hart, Hyman, Lindsay, and Papageorge 2022; Gershenson, Holt, and Papageorge 2016; Scherer, Cleveland, and Ivester 2021).

arrow icon  LICENSE

Annual Educator Shortage Data Files

Tier I Licenses & Permits
Most recent:  2021-2022

Past files

State and Federal Information

Go to the License website for application, status, and inquiry information.

arrow icon  RECRUIT

Check out Leading Forward: Recruit for information regarding employment listing and job opportunity resources.

arrow icon  DEVELOP & RETAIN

The Wisconsin Equitable Access Plan submitted to the US Department of Education has been developed to address the long-term needs for improving equitable access to great teachers and leaders in Wisconsin.
Learn more: Inequitable Distribution of Teachers

Annual Statewide Educator Effectiveness (EE) System Survey Report

DPI administers an annual survey to all Wisconsin public school districts and independent charter schools to assess the implementation of the required elements of the Wisconsin Educator Effectiveness (EE) System, regardless of the evaluation model used.

Individual CESA Survey Summaries:

Peer Review and Mentoring Grant (PRMG) Evaluation Report (2023) represents the first part of a planned three-year evaluation of the PRMG program. DPI’s Licensing, Educator Advancement and Development (LEAD) team is working with the Wisconsin Evaluation Collaborative (WEC) to evaluate and document the implementation and impact of the PRMG program. Related:  Peer Mentoring Best Practices in Wisconsin

Research & Resources

Podolsky, A., Kini, T. and Darling-Hammond, L. (2019), "Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of US research", Journal of Professional Capital and Community, Vol. 4 No. 4, pp. 286-308.

REL Northwest. n.d. “9 Strategies for Recruiting, Hiring, and Retaining Diverse Teachers.”

Milanowski, A. T., Kimball, S.M., & Odden, A.R. (2005). Teacher accountability measures and links to learning. In R. Rubenstein, A.E. Schwartz, L. Stiefel, and J. Zabel (Eds.), Measuring school performance & efficiency: Implications for practice and research, 2005 Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Gates Foundation (2013). Measures of effective teaching project, Ensuring fair and reliable measures of Effective Teaching: Culminating findings from the MET Project’s three-year study.

Haynes, Mariana. PhD. 2014. On the Path to Equity: Improving the Effectiveness of Beginning Teachers. Washington, D.C., July 2014.

Ingersoll, R. and Strong, M. “The Impact of Induction and Mentoring Programs for Beginning Teachers: A Critical Review of the Research. 81, no.2. (2011), 201-233.

Jones, Curtis J. Leon Gilman, and Mikhail Pyatigorsky. 2019. The Impact of the Wisconsin Educator Effectiveness Process on Student Achievement. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Socially Responsible Evaluation in Education.