While the number of children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes is small, schools must be prepared to prevent, recognize, and react to emergency medical involving students with type 1 diabetes. Children and adolescents with diabetes are at risk for low and high blood sugars, which if left untreated, can lead to insulin shock or diabetic ketoacidosis. Severe low blood sugar or insulin shock is treated with an injection of Glucagon or concentrated sugar on the oral mucous membrane. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketones build up when blood sugars are too high or when the student with diabetes is getting sick. Treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis involves the administration of insulin to lower blood sugar levels. Very high levels of ketones can cause loss of consciousness.
See the National Association of School Nurses Position Statement Diabetes Management in the School Setting (Revised February 2017) for a description and guidance on the role of school nurses in managing diabetes.
DPI Medication Training Resources
Other Training Resources
- American Diabetes Association
- Students with Diabetes: A Resource Guide for Wisconsin Schools and Families - Department of Health Services Resource Guide
- National Association of School Nurses Helping to Administer to the Needs of the Students with Diabetes in Schools (H.A.N.D.S.) is a full day, continuing education program for school nurses.
- eSchoolCare, an evidence-based online resource for school nurses is available by subscription. Content on chronic illnesses including asthma, allergies, and diabetes is presented by experts.
- School Nurse Summer Institute 2016—Managing Diabetes Safely in the School Setting: A framework for collaborative care
- Templates for Individual Health Care Plan for Diabetes Management with Insulin Pump and 504 Accommodation Plan that are age-appropriate and technology-dependent.
- Template for a 504 Accommodation Plan for students using injections
- Individual Health Care Plan for Diabetes Management
- Emergency Action Plan for Kenosha
- Checklist for students with diabetes
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. (2011). National Diabetes Statistics: Diagnosed Diabetes among People Younger than 20 Years of Age, United States. Accessed at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#ddY20
Dabelea, D., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Saydah, S., & Imperatore, G. (2014). Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA, 311(17), 1778-1786. Accessed at http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1866098